Schwedische Protestierende Krfte
Die Armee des Emperor
The Wesphalian Baggage Train
zur kunst des Krieges
1608: The creation of the Protestant Union (The Evangelic Union) an alliance of princes and city's supported by Holland, England and France led by (Frederick IV) the Elector of Palatinate.
1609: The creation of the Catholic League led by Maximilian of Bavaria and aided by the Emperor.
1618: Ferdinand Hapsburg of Austria elected King of Bohemia and begins his Catholic reformatory policies.
1618: Bohemian Protestant rebels invade the royal palace in Prague throwing two of the Kings ministers out of the windows (known as the Defenestraition of Prague). This marked the Protestant uprising lead by Count Heinrich Mattias. Protestants call for help from Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy and Ferdinand of Austria.
1618: 1st Nov. The battle of Pilsen. A Protestant army led by General Count Ernist von Mansfeld crossed into Bohemia with an army of 20,000. They attacked and captured the town of Pilsen a Catholic stronghold some 52 miles south west of Prague.
1619: 10th of June. The battle of Sablat. On route to besiege the Catholic town of Budweis Count Ernist von Mansfelds 20,000 men strong force was intercepted by the army of King Ferdinand which was commanded by the Comte de Bocquoy and forced Mansfeld to retire from the field after suffering 1,500 casualties and losing his baggage train.
1619: Frederick V elector of Palatinate is elected by Bohemians as their new King, which annuls the Evangelic Union. Frederick being a Calvinist led to several Lutheran members of the union to withdraw.
1619: August: Ferdinand becomes Ferdinand II Holy Roman Emperor.
1619: Spain takes the side of Ferdinand and prepares to invade Protestant Germany from Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands.
1620: 8th of November the battle of White Mountain. Maximilian 1st of Bavaria sent a Catholic army of 25,000 men under Field Marshall Count Tilly against Prague. Opposed by Christian 1st of Anhalt who led the Bohemian forces to the west of Prague where they were joined by Gabriel Bethlen, a Hungarian Nobleman. The combined army chose its ground on the chalk slopes of White Mountain. After an artillery bombardment Count Tilly charged his men up the mountain slope and into the Protestants lines that after suffering heavy losses fell back leaving Tilly's army to enter Prague freely. In turn leaving all Bohemia under catholic control. Protestantism was banned.
1620: Spanish conquer Palatinate and divide it with Bavaria.
1622: April: Count Tilly's army defeated at Wiesloch.
1625: German Protestant calls for help are answered by Christian IV of Denmark. He uses the Protestant cause as an excuse to further his territorial ambition and supported by Calvinist and Lutheran German Princes invades Saxony.
1626: April: Albrecht von Wallenstein Duke of Friedland a Catholic Bohemian leads a newly raised Imperial army of mercenaries for service under Ferdinand II in their first victory at Dessau.
1626: Christian's army defeated at Lutter an Barenberge by Tilly.
1627: The combined Imperialist army of Tilly and Wallenstein gains control of northern Germany and with Wallenstein in pursuit, forces Christian's army to retreat into the Jutland Peninsula.
1629: March: Ferdinand issues the Edict of Restitution which made void any Protestant claims to Roman Catholic land acquired in the Treaty of Augsburg.
1630: Backed by French cardinal Richelieu Gustav Adolphus of Sweden lands at Peenemnde on the coast of Pomerania with 10,000 troops
1631: Tilly now in overall command of the Imperialist army after Wallenstein being fired lays siege to the Protestant city of Magdeburg which was rebelling against the Holy Roman Empire. The city falls to Tilly's army on 20th May who massacres the Inhabitants.
17th the battle of Breitenfeld. The combined Swedish and Saxon armies
nearly defeated when the Saxon army fled at the first Imperialist
allowing Tilly's men to out flank the
1632: April: Tilly is mortally wounded on the banks of the Lech River, which led to the recall of Wallenstein who rapidly raised a new army of mercenaries.
1632: Wallenstein invades Saxony, which led to the battle of Lutzen on 16th November, a Swedish victory that cost the death of the Swedish King Gustav Adolphus.
1632: Bernhard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar takes command of the Swedish army.
1633: Wallenstein removed from command of Imperialist army on charges of treason after attempting to initiate peace negotiations.
1634:Wallenstein assassinated after entering peace talks with Protestant leaders.
1634: September 1634 Duke Bernhard defeated at the battle of Nordlingen. Protestant Union sue for peace.
1635: Peace of Prague Edict of Restitution annulled.
1635: France declares war on Spain.
1636: 4th October The battle of Wittstock. Swedish General Johan Baner defeats a combined Saxon and Austrian army.
1638: March. Battle of Rheinfelden.
1642: The Swedish under General Lennart Torstensson begin a series of victories that led to the occupation of Denmark.
1643: May. The battle of Rocroi. The French army, under Conde defeat the Spanish army.
1644: November French defeated at battle of Tyttlingen.
1647: Truce of Ulm.
1648: August 20th battle of Lens. This French victory forced Ferdinand to sue for peace.
1648: The Peace of Westphalia ended hostilities in Germany.